Tuesday, November 4, 2014

Android L AOSP(preview) under ARM64 (aarch64) QEMU emulator

As many others, I can't wait to put my hands on Android running on aarch64 (arm-v8) and as many other, it's difficult to afford such an expensive Juno board (the only development board arm-v8 available which I am aware of) If you Google a bit you'll bump into this cool article: 


The Linaro team put together ahead of time, around may 2014, a version of the Kernel for aarch64 called ranchu (forked from 3.10) and patched/worked together with the qemu team to create a machine model ranchu capable of emulating aarch64. Everything is well explained in the article above. 

However, by compiling the latest Android L preview 2 AOSP, I ended up with serious issues during the zygote startup. It looks there is something seriously different in how boot.art is made, thus passing it to patchoat (at first time boot) something goes very wrong. Not going into details of the hell issue.

Sometimes, when things goes wrong, better to restart from scratch. It's the old rule learned since the old Windows 95 time, hit ctrl-alt-delete. 

While compiling the AOSP, I noticed that into the prebuilt folder you have something called emultator64-arm64 which sounds pretty much what I wanted; who said that Google is not providing amr64 emulation yet? :) Yes, it's not official, emulator images are not provided with the latest SDKv19 but I happily found another piece of gold. In the folder qemu-kernel/arm64/kernel-qemu this file sounds very much like the kernel prebuilt for the arm64 emulator. Why not trying compiling AOSP for generic arm64 support? in the end the device reference is there in the AOSP without any patching... and voila...

Here are the steps to follow:

1) get Android L developer preview AOSP

cd /data/src
mkdir AOSP 
repo init -u https://android.googlesource.com/platform/manifest -b android-l-preview_r2
repo sync

wait a considerable amount of time to sync, almost 2 hours, prepare almost 100GB on your drive
note: you need repo command from google configured on your system.

2) have fun and compile (takes almost 1h on a decent machine)

source build/envsetup.sh
lunch aosp_arm64-eng
m -j8
here is the lunch output

3) move to the prebuilt emulator folder, in my case I am under linux-x64, chose your arch

cd /data/src/AOSP/prebuilts/android-emulator/linux-x86_64

4) to run the emulator you need anyhow an AVD configuration or start it manually from the qemu binary without using the google emulator wrapper. I prefer to use the wrapper here as the command is cleaner.

create an AVD using your ANDROID SDK, launch 

./android avd

(from platform tools, you can create one via command line ./android create)

or if you have already defined AVDs, just use one of them, settings will be overwritten by the command, so whatever you have in your AVD you are just using the config.ini file (stored in the .android folder). Preferably, set your AVD with more then 1024 MB ram. 

5) now you are ready to launch the emulator, here is the command (all one line). 

testL is the name of the AVD prepared. Wait, wait wait for android to finish booting, remember you are on a slow emulation, it takes time. If you are curios to see what's going on, just run "logcat" at the prompt to see all the mess in real time. 

./emulator64-arm64 -kernel ../../qemu-kernel/arm64/kernel-qemu -data /data/src/AOSP/out/target/product/generic_arm64/system.img -system /data/src/AOSP/out/target/product/generic_arm64/system.img -cache /data/src/AOSP/out/target/product/generic_arm64/cache.img -ramdisk /data/src/AOSP/out/target/product/generic_arm64/ramdisk.img -avd testL

Output, kernel boot and android prompt:

console on port 5554, ADB on port 5555
Initializing cgroup subsys cpu
Linux version 3.10.0+ (digit@tyrion.par.corp.google.com) (gcc version 4.8 (GCC) ) #12 SMP Tue Sep 16 22:36:19 CEST 2014
CPU: AArch64 Processor [411fd070] revision 0
Machine: ranchu
debug: skip boot console de-registration.
Unknown earlyprintk arguments: ttyAMA0
PERCPU: Embedded 10 pages/cpu @ffffffc07ffdf000 s11456 r8192 d21312 u40960
Built 1 zonelists in Zone order, mobility grouping on.  Total pages: 517120
Kernel command line: console=ttyAMA0,38400 keep_bootcon earlyprintk=ttyAMA0
PID hash table entries: 4096 (order: 3, 32768 bytes)
Dentry cache hash table entries: 262144 (order: 9, 2097152 bytes)
Inode-cache hash table entries: 131072 (order: 8, 1048576 bytes)
Memory: 2048MB = 2048MB total
Memory: 2058560k/2058560k available, 38592k reserved
Virtual kernel memory layout:
    vmalloc : 0xffffff8000000000 - 0xffffffbbffff0000   (245759 MB)
    vmemmap : 0xffffffbc00e00000 - 0xffffffbc02a00000   (    28 MB)
    modules : 0xffffffbffc000000 - 0xffffffc000000000   (    64 MB)
    memory  : 0xffffffc000000000 - 0xffffffc080000000   (  2048 MB)
      .init : 0xffffffc00057a000 - 0xffffffc0005a8cc0   (   188 kB)
      .text : 0xffffffc000080000 - 0xffffffc000579364   (  5093 kB)
      .data : 0xffffffc0005a9000 - 0xffffffc0005e7200   (   249 kB)
SLUB: HWalign=64, Order=0-3, MinObjects=0, CPUs=1, Nodes=1
Hierarchical RCU implementation.
 RCU restricting CPUs from NR_CPUS=4 to nr_cpu_ids=1.
NR_IRQS:64 nr_irqs:64 0
GIC CPU mask not found - kernel will fail to boot.
GIC CPU mask not found - kernel will fail to boot.
Architected local timer running at 62.50MHz (virt).
Console: colour dummy device 80x25
Calibrating delay loop (skipped), value calculated using timer frequency.. 125.00 BogoMIPS (lpj=625000)
pid_max: default: 32768 minimum: 301
Mount-cache hash table entries: 256
/cpus/cpu@0: Unknown CPU type
hw perfevents: no hardware support available
Brought up 1 CPUs
SMP: Total of 1 processors activated (125.00 BogoMIPS).
atomic64 test passed
NET: Registered protocol family 16
vdso: 2 pages (1 code, 1 data) at base ffffffc0005b1000
hw-breakpoint: found 6 breakpoint and 4 watchpoint registers.
software IO TLB [mem 0xbd400000-0xbd800000] (4MB) mapped at [ffffffc07d400000-ffffffc07d7fffff]
Serial: AMBA PL011 UART driver
9000000.pl011: ttyAMA0 at MMIO 0x9000000 (irq = 33) is a PL011 rev1
console [ttyAMA0] enabled
bio: create slab  at 0
SCSI subsystem initialized
Switching to clocksource arch_sys_counter
NET: Registered protocol family 2
TCP established hash table entries: 16384 (order: 6, 262144 bytes)
TCP bind hash table entries: 16384 (order: 6, 262144 bytes)
TCP: Hash tables configured (established 16384 bind 16384)
TCP: reno registered
UDP hash table entries: 1024 (order: 3, 32768 bytes)
UDP-Lite hash table entries: 1024 (order: 3, 32768 bytes)
NET: Registered protocol family 1
RPC: Registered named UNIX socket transport module.
RPC: Registered udp transport module.
RPC: Registered tcp transport module.
RPC: Registered tcp NFSv4.1 backchannel transport module.
Unpacking initramfs...
Freeing initrd memory: 816K (ffffffc008000000 - ffffffc0080cc000)
fuse init (API version 7.22)
msgmni has been set to 4022
io scheduler noop registered
io scheduler cfq registered (default)
loop: module loaded
 vda: unknown partition table
 vdb: unknown partition table
 vdc: unknown partition table
tun: Universal TUN/TAP device driver, 1.6
tun: (C) 1999-2004 Max Krasnyansky 
mousedev: PS/2 mouse device common for all mice
input: qwerty2 as /devices/9040000.goldfish-events/input/input0
ashmem: initialized
logger: created 256K log 'log_main'
logger: created 256K log 'log_events'
logger: created 256K log 'log_radio'
logger: created 256K log 'log_system'
ip_tables: (C) 2000-2006 Netfilter Core Team
arp_tables: (C) 2002 David S. Miller
TCP: cubic registered
NET: Registered protocol family 10
ip6_tables: (C) 2000-2006 Netfilter Core Team
sit: IPv6 over IPv4 tunneling driver
NET: Registered protocol family 17
Bridge firewalling registered
Registering SWP/SWPB emulation handler
drivers/rtc/hctosys.c: unable to open rtc device (rtc0)
Freeing unused kernel memory: 184K (ffffffc00057a000 - ffffffc0005a8000)
init (1): /proc/1/oom_adj is deprecated, please use /proc/1/oom_score_adj instead.
init: /dev/hw_random not found
init: /dev/hw_random not found
EXT4-fs (vda): mounted filesystem with ordered data mode. Opts: (null)
EXT4-fs (vdb): Ignoring removed nomblk_io_submit option
EXT4-fs (vdb): mounted filesystem with ordered data mode. Opts: nomblk_io_submit,errors=panic
EXT4-fs (vdc): Ignoring removed nomblk_io_submit option
EXT4-fs (vdc): mounted filesystem with ordered data mode. Opts: nomblk_io_submit,errors=panic
init: cannot find '/system/etc/install-recovery.sh', disabling 'flash_recovery'
healthd: BatteryVoltagePath not found
healthd: BatteryTemperaturePath not found
binder: 774:774 transaction failed 29189, size 0-0
logd.auditd: start
shell@generic_arm64:/ $ 


  1. emulator64-arm64 was taken out from the lollipop release (aosp 5.0 r1/2). qemu is now a new project for google, will soon be migrated but at the moment the new qemu is here: https://qemu-android.googlesource.com/qemu-ranchu

  2. Hi, I was able to start the emulator as described above. But the emulator doesn’t have the soft keys ( return, home etc). Also when I shell into the device there were no home directory( /home ) and sdcard ( /sdcard ) present. Is this an expected behaviour or Did I miss something ? I am new to android.

    1. /home and /sdcard, you can get them with proper configuration of the AVD, use the Android SDK tool to configure emulators. For the keys, it's kind of expected, yes. I don't believe buttons are supported yet! the focus is more on the aarch64 machine. The kernel (goldfish ranchu) supports standard buttons the old goldfish way, it's compiled into the ranchu build so I expect soon or later to see them on the real emulator

  3. This comment has been removed by the author.

  4. Hi. the launch command is giving error. Kindly update,
    junaid@ubuntu:~/AOSP/aosp$ lunch aosp_arm64-eng
    build/core/envsetup.mk:81: *** Unable to determine HOST_ARCH from uname -sm: Linux i686!. Stop.

    ** Don't have a product spec for: 'aosp_arm64'
    ** Do you have the right repo manifest?

  5. I can't figure out what is the problem for you, it's quite a while I am not running this on new AOSP.. will do the test and try to revert back to you guys...

  6. Hi, Firstly, Thank you for your blog.
    Now I have a problem.
    I was able to start the emulator as described above.but when I install a app. I get blew error:

    How to solved this?

    below is my config.ini
    hw.device.name=Nexus 9

    Thanks a lot

    1. you problem is relatively simple, disk.dataPartition.size=200M. You have to grow data partition, data.img. Create a new one as you like, google it or use the same emulator on another image. Remember to wipe it before, at first boot it everything will be all right!